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|Title:||Хореографічна діяльність Михайла Дудка в 1920–1950 роках|
|Other Titles:||Хореографическая деятельность Михаила Дудка в 1920–1950-х годах|
Choreographic activity of Mykhailo Dudko in 1920-1950 years
|Bibliographic description (Ukraine):||Чурпіта, Т. Хореографічна діяльність Михайла Дудка в 1920–1950 роках / Тетяна Чурпіта // Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету імені Володимира Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. – 2017. – № 1 (Вип. 36). – С. 153–164. – Бібліогр. наприкінці ст.|
|Publisher:||Тернопільський національний педагогічний університет імені Володимира Гнатюка|
|Abstract:||У статті розглянуто виконавську діяльність артиста балету, балетмейстера, заслуженого артиста РСФРР М. Дудка в Державному академічному театрі опери і балету (ДАТОБ) протягом 1920–1930-х рр. та в період Другої світової війни під час роботи художнім керівником Гатчинської концертно-балетної трупи. Основну увагу приділено причинам та передумовам його ув’язнення за роботу на окупованих територіях, особливостям життя і творчості артиста за колючим дротом виправно-трудового табору системи ГУЛАГ.|
В статье рассмотрена исполнительская деятельность артиста балета, балетмейстера, заслуженного артиста РСФСР М. Дудка в Государственном академическом театре оперы и балета (ГАТОБ) в течение 1920–1930-х гг. и в период Второй мировой войны во время работы художественным руководителем Гатчинской концертно-балетной труппы. Основное внимание уделено причинам и предпосылкам его заключения за работу на оккупированных территориях, особенностям жизни и творчества артиста за колючей проволокой исправительно-трудового лагеря системы ГУЛАГ.
The article considers a performing activity of Honoured Artist of the RSFSR Mykhailo Dudko in 1920–1930’s and during the Second World War. The main attention is paid to the reasons and peculiarities of his imprisonment, features of artist’s life and creation behind the barbed wire of a labour camp of the Gulag system. Son of a simple St. Petersburg family M. Dudko joined the Imperial Theater School at the St. Petersburg Imperial troupe, where his teachers were the best dancers of his time (S. Andrianov, V. Semenov, L. Leontiev). Even in those early years, educators predicted a great future for him. After the graduation from Petrograd Ballet School in 1920, the artist became a member of the former imperial ballet troupe of the Mariinsky Theatre. The choreographic talent of Dudko and good ballet data led him to perform repertoire from all major parties as the premiere. Romantic and heroic images (Hans (“Solveig”) Soloist (“Shubertiana”), Captain (“Red Poppy”) Taras (“Taras Bulba”), Commander (“Laurensiya”), Basile, Albert, pas de trois, Prince (“Swan lake”)) was the best performed parties of the actor, and their implementation on the ballet stage was positively noted by the theatre critics. For 20 years, M. Dudko was one of the first dancers of the Leningrad ballet, he was considered as a representative of the “French school”, the artist had the best partner ballerinas: E. Gerdt, G. Ulanova, N. Dudinska. With excellent dancing skills, the actor was not afraid gesture and its expression so in the history of ballet he will always remain the first and a wonderful performer of Giray role in the ballet “The Fountain of Bakhchisarai” staged by R. Zakharov on the music of B. Asafyev. The dancer worked In Leningrad Opera and Ballet theatre until the very beginning of the World War II in 1941. Since the start of hostilities in August 1941, the theatre workers were evacuated. But not all were able to leave. M. Dudko had to abandon Leningrad. As a result – the artist found himself in the occupied territory. The Germans, who commanded in the area, allowed artists to perform, and then under the direction of M. Dudko, the artistic collective was created in Gatchina town of Leningrad Region. Concert ballet troupe consisted of 15 people, its repertoire included Russian, Ukrainian, gipsy, classical dances and other stagings, a performance of music compositions, arias from classical operas of Russian operas and German romances, artistic readings of Zoshchenko works. In accordance with the instructions, the collective served the German troops, civilians and volunteer troops, Russian prisoners of war and workers in the towns and villages, in the rear, and in the front-line, where Army Group “North” was operating. It should be noted that most of the stage performances were not political. After successful work in the frontline, the team was sent to Europe, where it visited Germany, Austria, Latvia, Estonia and other countries. After the end of the war, the native country treated M. Dudko worse than Nazis – the stay and work in the occupied territories equated to the crime. The government denied both freedom and profession of the artist and this despite the fact that he did not commit any crimes, and just trying to survive in the most difficult conditions with the help of his profession, being able to leave their homeland, did not. Artist was sentenced to 8 years in the Volga labour camp, but despite this, the work of master found expression also in the dark Gulag environment – in Central KVV Volhobud theatre ensemble under the direction of S. Radlov. In ensemble, M. Dudko was mostly involved in the dance parties. In the comic one-act ballet “Harlequin-peddler” to the music of waltzes, polkas, marches by Johann Strauss, in the Gypsy act with camp songs, dances, pantomime and other performances artist played the leading male roles. He participated in the camp setting of “Bakhchisarai fountain” where once again embodied in the image of powerful and rigorous Giray Khan. Master distinguished in a dramatic role in the staging of “Under Chestnuts of Prague” by K. Simonov, where he played the role of old grey Montenegrin Dzhokich. M. Dudko was released and rehabilitated in 1953. In the years 1953–1962 he without having the right to return to Leningrad, worked in the Opera and Ballet theatres of Ufa, Novosibirsk, Tbilisi. In 1956, M. Dudko took part in the ballet “Masquerade” by L. Laputin in the Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theatre, where he performed the role of Nevidomyy. In 1960, the film studio “Georgia-Film” took off with M. Dudko film-ballet. It was a film adaptation of the play Tbilisi of Opera and Ballet Theatre “Othello the Moor of Venice” by composer A. Machavariani, staged by V. Chabukiani. M. Dudko was playing the role of Brabantsio. Once V. Chabukiani and M. Dudko were partners on a sсene at the Leningrad Opera and Ballet theatre. V. Chabukiani certainly invited the colleague in the film, trying to somehow ease his existence. From V. Chabukiani it was definitely a civil feat. Only at the end of life, the master was allowed to move to his hometown. But he could not back to the profession by age. M. Dudko died on September 11, 1981, in Leningrad, he was 78 years old.
|Appears in Collections:||Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету ім. В. Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. 2017. № 1|
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