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Title: Тернопільський Катедральний собор: історія будівництва, розвитку та відновлення храму
Other Titles: Тернопольский Кафедральный собор: история строительства, развития и восстановление храма
The Ternopil Cathedral: the history of it’s building, development and renewal
Authors: Дячок, Оксана Миронівна
Bibliographic description (Ukraine): Дячок, О. Тернопільський Катедральний собор: історія будівництва, розвитку та відновлення храму / Оксана Дячок // Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету імені Володимира Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. – 2017. – № 1 (Вип. 36). – С. 224–228. – Бібліогр. наприкінці ст.
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Тернопільський національний педагогічний університет імені Володимира Гнатюка
Keywords: бароко
пам’ятка архітектури
соціально-політичні процеси
орден Домініканців
орден Єзуїтів
Series/Report no.: Мистецтвознавство;
Abstract: У статті досліджено історію пам’ятки барокової архітектури ХVIII століття у місті Тернополі. Висвітлено історичні передумови будівництва костелу, проаналізовано ймовірне авторство цієї споруди, розквіт, руйнування та відновлення храму. Визначено, що костел постійно перебував у центрі усіх історичних і політичних подій міста, відігравав важливу роль у популяризації християнських цінностей, був центром просвіти й культури.
В статье исследована история памятника барокковой архитектуры ХVIII века в городе Тернополе. Освещены исторические предпосылки строительства костела, проанализированы вероятное авторство этого сооружения, расцвет, разрушение и восстановление храма. Определено, что костел постоянно находился в центре всех исторических и политических событий города, играл важную роль в популяризации христианских ценностей, был центром просвещения и культуры.
The article examines the history of Ternopil Dominican Church, places of the eighteenth century. Shown the impact of the socio-political and strategic changes to the sanctuary, its importance in the social and cultural processes, role in promoting Christian values. There are no materials about the temple in archives. Therefore, the study of the history of this Sanctuary is important. During many centuries the territory of Ukraine was split between different foreign countries. The rule of Russia, Poland, Austria was not conductive nor to the development of Ukrainian statehood, nor the free choice of religion. Introducing Catholicism in Galicia, the Poles began to build lots of churches. The city’s owner Jozef Potocki has built Roman Catholic Church with the monastery in 1749 on a place of the ruined Ukrainian Orthodox Church. The researchers of the history of the city say that the Rome-Catholic temple with the monastery was built in 1749–1779. The first name of the temple was st.Vincent Ferrer’s church. Some scientists, like Metchislav Gembarovich considered August Moschynskyy the author of the project. Some historians, like Bogdan Ianush, didn’t agry with that, because 18 year old August could not create such a masterpiece. But, after the Riga peacefull agreement (1921), when the paintings from the royal collection, were turned back from St. Petersburg to Poland, the original plan of the cathedral has been found. Its author was August Moschynskіy. In the initial project of the Church was rectangular with a main axis. The main chancel was on the building grid line. The frontage had to be relatively low, with a triangular attikom. It had two small towers and a great dome. The dominant role belonged to the dome; the towers were not attached special importance. The church was built according to the traditions of the Polish construction – clearly dedicated main facade with two towers like a Gothic Temple, elongated in plan like Basilica. The temple was a defensive structure with an adjoined monastery. The main faсade was divided with the moldings into three tiers. Two square towers have pyramidal cupolas. The walls have the pilasters with capitals of Ionic order. The inner decoration with carved altars. The frescoes of the dome reflected the important events in the history of the Dominican order. Analysing the arcitecture of Ukrainian baroque, we can see that it has it’s own characteristic features. In particular, the main faсade was never strictly axpressed, cruciform churches were opened from all sides, they had dynamic composition of main volume. However, we can see that the tradition of Western European construction won. The temple has clearly highlighted main facade with two towers. Since 1800’s the rule in Ternopil was frequently changed, the same as the temple’s owners. The temple frequently was in a running state. The greatest destructions were caused by the Russian army during the World War I and the World War II. The restoration after the war was finished in 1959. Lots of sculptural elements were not restored. There was no even an attempt to renovate the interior’s murals. The storage was placed in a temple – the architectural monument. The murals were finally ruined in 1978 when the church was refitted to the city painting gallery. With the coming of independence of Ukraine and the rebirth of spirituality in society the Temple started to be intended used. The renovated church became the place of interest of the city and one of the main centers of the Greek-Catholic faith, educational and cultural center.
Appears in Collections:Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету ім. В. Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. 2017. № 1

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