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Title: Концепція декоративності болгарських сорочок на Півдні України (ХIХ – початок ХХ століття)
Other Titles: Концепция декоративности болгарских рубах на Юге Украины (XIX – начало ХХ века)
Conception of decorativeness of Bulgarian shirts in the South of Ukraine (XIX – early of the XX century)
Authors: Тригуб, Олена
Bibliographic description (Ukraine): Тригуб, О. Концепція декоративності болгарських сорочок на Півдні України (ХIХ – початок ХХ століття) / Олена Тригуб // Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету імені Володимира Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. – 2017. – № 1 (Вип. 36). – С. 269–276. – Бібліогр. наприкінці ст.
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Тернопільський національний педагогічний університет імені Володимира Гнатюка
Keywords: болгарські сорочки
концепція декоративності
тунікоподібний крій
елементи оздоблення
Series/Report no.: Мистецтвознавство;
Abstract: У статті досліджено особливості болгарських народних сорочок на Півдні України в ХІХ – на початку ХХ ст., розглянуто їхню концепцію декоративності та художні особливості, на основі детального вивчення предметів з фондів краєзнавчих і етнографічних музеїв Одеси й Миколаєва, а також польових досліджень у болгарських селах Одеської та Миколаївської областей (колишня територія Херсонської і Бессарабської губерній) проаналізовано зміни в їх крої та оздобленні залежно від часу, матеріалів і впливу навколишнього середовища.
В статье исследованы особенности болгарских народных рубах на Юге Украины в XIX – начале ХХ в., Рассмотрены их концепция декоративности и художественные особенности, на основе детального изучения предметов из фондов краеведческих и этнографических музеев Одессы и Николаева, а также полевых исследований в болгарских селах Одесской и Николаевской областей (бывшая территория Херсонской и Бессарабской губерний) проанализированы изменения в их крое и отделке в зависимости от времени, материалов и воздействия окружающей среды.
The paper studied Bulgarian folk shirts, their conception of decorativeness and artistic features in the South of Ukraine in the ХІХ – early of the XX century, analysed the changes in their cut and trimming depending on time, materials, and environmental impact. During the work, the field researches were conducted in the Bulgarian villages of Odessa and Mykolaiv regions (the former territory of Bessarabia and Kherson provinces), and the exhibits of local history and ethnographic museums of Odessa and Mykolaiv were studied. It was found that the Bulgarian national women’s shirts according to a cut and external decoration are divided into two types: tunic-type (i.e. with no shoulder seam) and shirts with shoulder inserts and shirts – byrchanks. Two-breechclout clothes – women’s clothing, the waist part of which form wrap skirt with apron with the name of the back and front waist-cloth. Shirts on byrchanka are located at the collar and on the edges of sleeves. Shoulders of byrchanka are formed by triangular or square inserts that combine front and back parts of the main base cloth. The tunic-type shirts are typical for the sukman clothes complex (sukman is the deaf blue or black woollen dress without shoulder seam). They consist of the base cloth, which has the double length from shoulder to ankles, and which is bent in half. The peculiarities in the arrangement of decoration of byrchanka and tunic-type shirt were analysed. The ornamental decoration with embroidery of byrchanka is focused on the front side of the collar, on the edge of hem, in the area of chest. The main decorative load centres of tunic-type shirts are sleeves and hem. The areas of shirts that could be seen from the sukman were decorated. It was established that the most common type of Bulgarian shirts cut in the South of Ukraine was just tunic-type, but in some villages the shirts with shirred sleeves and shoulder inserts were found. It was determined that the shirts were made of different materials: cotton, woollen, hemp, flax, silk base cloth. Depending on what material was woven the base cloth, along its length the strips were placed of hemp, cotton, flax or silk threads, which gave the fabric texture and relief. Among other things, such strips were different from the basic material in tone and colour, and they formed a specific rhythm and pattern of fabric. The analysis of ethnographic studies of the ХІХ-th century indicates that the sleeves and the breast part were the main decorative accents of the Bulgarian folk shirt. However, in the early XX century, the bright embellishment embroidered shirts are replaced with white hand-made or factory lace, the length of shirt is decreased. These changes are typical for both Bulgaria and for the South of Ukraine. There is a new element – the yoke in the cut. The sleeve is shortened and supplemented with the cuff. It was found that the sukman women’s clothes are according to chernodreshnial men’s clothes (male type of clothes that are characterized by presence of black clothes). Men’s shirts in the South of Ukraine have tunic type of cut, as the women ones. Men’s shirts were made of the same materials as the women ones: from hemp, flax, later – from cotton base cloths. In the early XX century, the shirt with a banded collar, breast cut in the front or on the side and embroidered sleeves become a part of everyday life. This type of shirt is gradually replacing traditional tunic type. It was determined that the women’s shirts during the ХІХ century remained traditional, and only in the early ХХ century the decoration is changed in them, the function of underwear is attached, the cut gets the specificities of the city fashion, and the factory fabrics are used. Men’s shirts except changes associated with the change of time and economic status become features of shirts of the male population of the southern regions of Ukraine. Both men and women’s shirts in the early XX century are less ornamented with embroidery. It remains mainly on the festive and ceremonial clothes.
Appears in Collections:Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету ім. В. Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. 2017. № 1

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