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Title: Двоголовий орел – геральдичний символ Галицько-Волинської держави
Other Titles: Двуглавый орел – геральдический символ Галицко-Волынского государства
Headed eagle – heraldic symbol of Galician-Volyn state
Authors: Білик, Олена
Bibliographic description (Ukraine): Білик, О. Двоголовий орел – геральдичний символ Галицько-Волинської держави / Олена Білик // Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету імені Володимира Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. – 2017. – № 1 (Вип. 36). – С. 284–292. – Бібліогр. наприкінці ст.
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Тернопільський національний педагогічний університет імені Володимира Гнатюка
Keywords: Галицько-Волинська Русь
Series/Report no.: Мистецтвознавство;
Abstract: У статті на основі комплексного аналізу писемних, геральдичних, архітектурних і археологічних джерел розкрито використання символа двоголового орла на території Галицько-Волинської держави. Визначено, що його поширенню сприяли античне походження і почесне місце у візантійській традиції, а також надзвичайна популярність цього образу в давньоруському мистецтві. Охарактеризовано художньо-релігійний символ двоголового орла як невід’ємного елементу давньоруського декоративно-прикладного мистецтва.
В статье на основе комплексного анализа письменных, геральдических, архитектурных и археологических источников раскрыто использование символа двуглавого орла на территории Галицко-Волынского государства. Определено, что его распространению способствовали античное происхождение и почетное место в византийской традиции, а также чрезвычайная популярность этого образа в древнерусском искусстве. Охарактеризованы художественно-религиозный символ двуглавого орла как неотъемлемого элемента древнерусского декоративно-прикладного искусства.
In the Old art, especially in architectural decoration of 11th-13th century, only the image of a single-head eagle was found, while in the Byzantine cultural circle the image of a double-headed eagle was known. In the recent years, as result of searches on the territory of ancient Halych, several works of decorative-applied a picture of a double-headed eagle were found. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to try to figure out the functionality and the iconographic program of works art of such content. The artists of Galician architectural school borrowed artistic symbol of a single-head eagle from Kyiv monument art architecture of Malopolska. It is widely used in the decoration of ceramic tiles that veneers floors and walls of ancient temples and palaces. Similar ornamental motifs are found the architectural decoration in Volodymyro-Suzdal Rus. From the area of monumental sculpture, the image of an eagle was used as models by Galician goldsmiths in the production of bracelets, signets and rings. Equally rich in heraldic and history is a symbol of a double-headed eagle. Artistic-religious image of a double-headed eagle has Eastern origin. The most ancient images belong to the 12th century BC. In ancient Rome it was considered as the main emblem of the pagan god Jupiter and of the Roman Empire. The emblem of a bird of prey was personally used on their banners by outstanding military Roman leaders Pompey and Julius Caesar. In the Empire the image of double-headed eagle was used as a symbol of power and state emblem that had been started by Constantine the Great from 326 year. Archeological finds from the territory Ukraine argue that the leaders of tribal and military alliances in different periods of ancient history used the eagle as a symbol of power. In describing of the architectural construction in Holm, which was started by Prince Danylo Romanovych in 40–50 years of the 13th century, impresses the mention a monumental pedestal with the image of headed eagle. In Ukrainian and foreign historiography and art criticism, a liberally of scientific papers was accumulated in which the authors argued that it was the coat of arms of Halician-Volyn state. Sights of decorative and applied art that were recently discovered near the Galician church of St. Panteleimon, not only confirm these hypotheses, but also prove the starting of heraldic tradition with an eagle by Prince Roman Mstyslavych (1199–1205). He combined Galicia and Volyn and in honor of this event he built Panteleimon church in Galicia. However, in the article a deep analysis of art criticism of discovered works of art is made, displayed their analogy in medieval art, convincingly shown, how an artistic work of Galician artists found application in the structure of public administration and diplomatic ties of rulers of Galicia-Volyn state. New sights of artistic crafts significantly enrich our knowledge of the spiritual culture of Old Rus civilization.
Appears in Collections:Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету ім. В. Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. 2017. № 1

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