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Title: Основні напрямки розвитку архітектури Тернополя у післявоєнний час (1944–1965 роки)
Other Titles: Основные направления развития архитектуры Тернополя в послевоенное время (1944–1965 годы)
Main directions of Ternopil architecture development in the post-war period (1944–1965 years)
Authors: Дацюк, Наталія Михайлівна
Bibliographic description (Ukraine): Дацюк, Н. Основні напрямки розвитку архітектури Тернополя у післявоєнний час (1944–1965 роки) / Наталія Дацюк // Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету імені Володимира Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. – 2017. – № 1 (Вип. 36). – С. 234–241. – Бібліогр. наприкінці ст.
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Тернопільський національний педагогічний університет імені Володимира Гнатюка
Keywords: архітектура
Series/Report no.: Мистецтвознавство;
Abstract: У статті розглянуто питання розвитку архітектурно-планувальної структури міста Тернополя у повоєнні часи, принципи організації архітектурних ансамблів, які створювали художній образ міста. Висвітлено зміну стилістичної спрямованості у формуванні обличчя центральної частини Тернополя, що найповніше проявилась у громадських спорудах, які вважаються композиційними акцентами вулиць, площ, скверів і визначають художній образ міста. Досліджено участь архітекторів того часу в становленні архітектурно-мистецького середовища обласного центру.
В статье рассмотрены вопросы развития архитектурно-планировочной структуры города Тернополя в послевоенное время, принципы организации архитектурных ансамблей, которые создавали художественный образ города. Освещены изменения стилистической направленности в формировании облика центральной части Тернополя, которая наиболее полно проявилась в общественных зданиях, которые считаются композиционными акцентами улиц, площадей, скверов и определяют художественный образ города. Рассмотрено участие архитекторов того времени в становлении архитектурно-художественной среды областного центра.
The study of the main directions of the architecture development of Ternopil in the period between the 1945–1965 is especially relevant lately. Given that, today a new general plan of the city is developed, it provides for a more compact planning of the administrative center territory, the building of parks and green areas is being carried out. It is interesting to know which architects took an active part in the development of the administrative center at that time, the influence of the city’s leadership on the processes of construction and development of urban infrastructure. In April 1944, the Soviet army liberated the territory of Ternopil from the German troops. The city was completely destroyed. It was necessary to restore the regional center. At that time there was a shortage of qualified specialists in the field of architecture and construction. No one wanted to go to work in the city, because there were no adequate working and housing conditions. An interesting town-planning development of the postwar period is the restoration project of the almost destroyed Ternopil. In 1945, the specialists of the “Dipromisto” (architects V. Novykov, N. Panchuk) in a very short time fulfilled the layout of the central part of the city on the spot, and today it practically remains the same. According to the general layout, developed by the project organization “Dipromisto”, the central part of the city in the period between the 1946–1948 was rebuilt in the previously existing limits. 14 destroyed houses were rebuilt along the boulevard of T. Shevchenko (Stalin Street), in addition, a new building of the cinema “Peremoha” for 500 seats was built by the architect A. N. Maslov (pic. 1). In the postwar decades, new theaters were built in Ukraine. They were built according to the traditional scheme, with a grand entrance portico, sequential placement of a cash vestibule and a foyer that surrounds the auditorium and the scene with the service rooms. Such a theater was built in Ternopil (in 1953 by the architects I. Mykhailenko, F. Chornovol, V. Novikov). After the World War II, architecture of “social realism” appeared in Ternopil. It was then when the so-called Stalin’s houses began to be built. Typical projects of residential houses have not been developed yet, housing construction has been carried out according to individual projects, so special attention is drawn to the “house on the stairs” at number 39 on the street of Kniazia Ostrozkoho in Ternopil, architect Volovets Volodymyr Vasylovych (Pic. 3). This first “stalinka” became the new face of the city, which connected the pomposity of finishing the elements of the facades of the house using traditional, improved architectural forms (pic. 4). In the fifties of the XXth century there is a large-scale renovation of the urban territory of Ternopil. A large water basin with the area of 400 hectares is being built on the River Seret, and it has changed the city and gave it a peculiar artistic image. The park named after T. Shevchenko was established, it stretched along the eastern shore of water basin. During the socialist reconstruction and atheistic hysteria, thousands of masterpieces of national architecture were destroyed on the territory of Ukraine. Among the lost architectural pearls of Ternopil is the Parafial Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Relentless Help, built during 1904–1908. The Central Universal Department Store was built on its place (pic. 6), architects V. Novykov, I. Mykhailenko, F. Chornovol. It can be concluded that between the 1945 and 1965, almost completely destroyed Ternopil was raised from ruins and fires, architectural ensembles of the city center were created, residential, public, cultural and educational institutions were built, street infrastructure was expanded by building squares, boulevards, garden squares, parks were planted with trees, beautification of adjoining territory of Ternopil lake was also carried out. The architectural and artistic environment of the postwar city was actively formed.
Appears in Collections:Наукові записки Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету ім. В. Гнатюка. Сер. Мистецтвознавство. 2017. № 1

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